初一英语基础知识总结及练习,火速收藏!


  初一英语重点知识点总结及练习
  
  初一年级(上)
  
  【知识梳理】
  
  I. 重点短语
  
  1. Sit down
  
  2. on duty
  
  3. in English
  
  4. have a seat
  
  5. at home
  
  6. look like
  
  7. look at
  
  8. have a look
  
  9. come on
  
  10. at work
  
  11. at school
  
  12. put on
  
  13. look after
  
  14. get up
  
  15. go shopping
  
  II. 重要句型
  
  1. help sb. do sth.
  
  2. What about…?
  
  3. Let’s do sth.
  
  4. It’s time to do sth.
  
  5. It’s time for …
  
  6. What’s…? It is…/ It’s…
  
  7. Where is…? It’s….
  
  8. How old are you? I’m….
  
  9. What class are you in? I’m in….
  
  10. Welcome to….
  
  11. What’s …plus…? It’s….
  
  12. I think…
  
  13. Who’s this? This is….
  
  14. What can you see? I can see….
  
  15. There is (are) ….
  
  16. What colour is it (are they)? It’s (They’re)…
  
  17. Whose …is this? It’s….
  
  18. What time is it? It’s….
  
  III. 交际用语
  
  1. Good morning, Miss/Mr….
  
  2. Hello! Hi!
  
  3. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too.
  
  4. How are you? I’m fine, thank you/thanks. And you?
  
  5. See you. See you later.
  
  6. Thank you! You’re welcome.
  
  7. Goodbye! Bye!
  
  8. What’s your name? My name is ….
  
  9. Here you are. This way, please.
  
  10. Who’s on duty today?
  
  11. Let’s do.
  
  12. Let me see.
  
  IV. 重要语法
  
  1. 动词be的用法;
  
  2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法;
  
  3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法;
  
  4. 冠词的基本用法;
  
  5. There be句型的用法。
  
  【名师讲解】
  
  1. in/on
  
  在表示空间位置时,in表示在某个空间的范围以内,on表示在某一个物体的表面之上。例如:
  
  There is a bird in the tree. 树上有只鸟。
  
  There is a picture on the wall. 墙上有张图。
  
  2. this/that/these/those
  
  (1)this常常用来指在时间、地点上更接近讲话人的人和事,these是this的复数形式。that常常用来指在时间、地点上离讲话人更远一点的人和事,those时that的复数形式。例如:
  
  You look in this box and I’ll look in that one over there.你看看这个盒子,我去看那边的那个盒子。
  
  I want this car, not that car. 我想要这辆小汽车,不是那一辆。
  
  Take these books to his room, please. 请把这些书拿到他房间去。
  
  This is mine; that’s yours. 这个是我的,那个是你的。
  
  These are apples; those are oranges. 这些是苹果,那些是橘子。
  
  (2)在打电话的用语中,this常常指的是我,that常常指的是对方。例如:
  
  This is Mary speaking. Who’s that? 我是玛丽。你是谁?
  
  3. There be/ have
  
  There be "有",其确切含意为"某处或某时存在某人或某物。"其结构是:There be + 某人或某物 + 表示地点或时间的状语。There be 后面的名词实际上是主语,be 动词的形式要和主语在数上保持一致,be动词后面的名词是单数或不可数名词时用is,名词是复数时用are。例如:
  
  (1) There is a big bottle of coke on the table. 桌上有一大瓶子可乐。
  
  (2) There is a doll in the box. 那个盒子里有个娃娃。
  
  (3) There are many apples on the tree. 那树上有许多苹果。
  
  总之,There be结构强调的是一种客观存在的"有"。have表示"拥有,占有,具有",即:某人有某物(sb. have / has sth.)。主语一般是名词或代词,与主语是所属关系。例如:
  
  (4) I have two brothers and one sister.我有两个兄弟,一个姐姐。
  
  (5) That house has four rooms.那所房子有四个房间。
  
  4. look/ see/ watch
  
  (1)look 表示“看、瞧”,着重指认真看,强调看的动作,表示有意识地注意看,但不一定看到,以提醒对方注意。,如:
  
  Look! The children are playing computer games. 瞧!孩子们在玩电脑游戏。
  
  Look! What’s that over there? 看!那边那个是什么?
  
  单独使用是不及物动词,如强调看某人/物,其后接介词at,才能带宾语,如:
  
  He’s looking at me。他正在看着我。
  
  (2)see强调“看”的结果,着重的是look这个动作的结果,意思是“看到”,see是及物动词,后面能直接跟宾语。如:
  
  What can you see in the picture? 你能在图上看到什么?
  
  Look at the blackboard. What did you see on it?看黑板!你看到了什么?
  
  (3)watch“观看,注视”,侧重于场面,表示全神贯注地观看、观察或注视某事务的活动,强调过程,常用于“看电视、看足球、看演出”等。如:
  
  Yesterday we watched a football match on TV.昨天我们从电视上看了一场足球比赛。
  
  4. put on/ / in
  
  put on意为“穿上,戴上”。主要指“穿上”这一动作, 后面接表示服装、鞋帽的名词。
  
  in 是介词,表示“穿着”强调状态。在句中可以做定语、标语和状语。如:
  
  It’s cold outside, put on your coat. 外面冷,穿上你的外衣。
  
  He puts on his hat and goes out.  他戴上帽子,走了出去。
  
  The woman in a white blouse is John’s mother.穿白色衬衣的那个妇女是John的妈妈。
  
  5. house/ home/family
  
  house :“房子”,指居住的建筑物; Home: “家”,指一个人同家人共同经常居住的地方; Family:  “家庭“,“家庭成员”。例如:
  
  Please come to my house this afternoon. 今天下午请到我家来。
  
  He is not at home. 他不在家。
  
  My family all get up early. 我们全家都起得很早。
  
  6. fine, nice, good, well
  
  四者都可用作形容词表示"好"之意,但前三者既可作表语又可作定语,而后者仅用作表语。主要区别在于:
  
  (1) fine指物时表示的是质量上的"精细",形容人时表示的是"身体健康",也
  
  可以用来指"天气晴朗"。例如:
  
  Your parents are very fine. 你父母身体很健康。
  
  That's a fine machine. 那是一台很好的机器。
  
  It's a fine day for a walk today. 今天是散步的好时候。
  
  (2)nice主要侧重于人或物的外表,有"美好","漂亮"的意思,也可用于问候或赞扬别人。例如:
  
  Lucy looks nice. 露西看上去很漂亮。
  
  These coats are very nice. 那些裙子很好看。
  
  Nice to meet you. 见到你很高兴。
  
  It's very nice of you. 你真好。
  
  (3)good形容人时指"品德好",形容物时指"质量好",是表示人或物各方面都好的普通用语。例如:
  
  Her son is a good student. 她儿子是一个好学生。
  
  The red car is very good. 那辆红色小汽车很好。
  
  (4)well只可用来形容人的"身体好",但不能作定语,它也能用作副词作状语,多放在所修饰的动词之后。例如:
  
  I'm very well, thanks. 我身体很好,谢谢。
  
  My friends sing well. 我的朋友们歌唱得好。
  
  【考点扫描】
  
  中考考点在本单元主要集中在:
  
  1. 动词be的用法;
  
  2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法;
  
  3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法;
  
  4. 冠词的基本用法;
  
  5. There be句型的用法。
  
  6. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;
  
  7. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。
  
  考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空、完成句子。
  
  【中考范例】
  
  1. (2004年北京市中考试题)
  
  Mary, please show ________ your picture.
  
  A. my  B. mine  C. I  D. me
  
  【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是人称代词和物主代词的用法。本题中动词show后面跟双宾语,空白处应填入人称代词的宾格me作宾语。
  
  2. (2004年上海市徐汇区中考试题)
  
  _________ orange on the desk is for you, Mike.
  
  A. A  B.An  C. /  D. The
  
  【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是冠词的基本用法。因为是特指课桌上的那个橘子,所以用定冠词the。
  
  3. (2004年哈尔滨市中考试题)
  
  ---What _______ the number of the girls in your class?
  
  ---About twenty.
  
  A. is  B. am  C. are  D. be
  
  【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是动词be的用法和主谓一致。the number作主语,应该是单数第三人称,动词be变为is。
  
  4. (2004年陕西省中考试题)
  
  There _______ a football match on TV this evening.
  
  A. will have  B. is going to be  C. has  D. is going to have
  
  【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是There be…句型和动词have用法区别。There be句型本身就表示“在某个地方存在某个人或物”,不能和动词have混在一起用。
  
  【满分演练】
  
  一. 单项填空
  
  1. ---What colour is the bike?
  
  ---It’s _______ orange.
  
  A. an  B. a  C. /  D. the
  
  2. That isn’t her bag. It’s ________.
  
  A. my  B. I  C. mine  D. me
  
  3. ---Oh, your kite is very nice.
  
  ---__________________.
  
  A. That’s right  B. No, it’s not nice  C. Yes, it is  D. Thank you
  
  4. The woman is sixty, but she _______ young.
  
  A. is  B. sees  C. looks  D. watches
  
  5. It’s time ________ lunch. Let’s go home.
  
  A. to  B. in  C. for  D. on
  
  6. ---________ is your coat?
  
  ---The black one.
  
  A. What  B. Where  C. Which  D. How
  
  7. ---________ is the toy?
  
  ---It’s on the bed.
  
  A. Who  B. Where  C. What  D. Whose
  
  8. The shoes are too old. Put ________ over there.
  
  A. it  B. they  C. their  D. them
  
  9. Excuse me. Can you _______ my watch, please?
  
  A. look  B. look like  C. look after  D. look at
  
  10. Look _______ the blackboard and listen _______ the teacher.
  
  A. / /   B. at; to  C. after; /  D. on; after
  
  11. ---Whose dress is this?
  
  ---It’s _________.
  
  A. Lucy  B. Lucy’s  C. Jim  D. Jim’s
  
  12. The girl ______ the purple coat is his sister.
  
  A. at  B. in  C. on  D. with
  
  13. There is a bird ______ the tree.
  
  A. in  B. on  C. to  D. of
  
  14. There are many ________ in our school.
  
  A. woman teachers      B. woman teacher
  
  C. women teacher       D. women teachers
  
  15. ---Is there a ball under the desk?
  
  ---______________________.
  
  A. Yes, it is                   B. Yes, there’s
  
  C. No, there isn’t               D. No, there is
  
  16. There _______ some books and a pencil on the desk.
  
  A. am  B. is  C. are  D. be
  
  17. ---Let me help you.
  
  ---_______________.
  
  A. You’re welcome     B. Thanks very much
  
  C. Don’t worry        D. Yes, thanks
  
  18. ______ old man is ______ English teacher.
  
  A. The; an  B. An; an  C. The; the  D. A; a
  
  19. ---What _____ five plus six?
  
  ---It’s eleven.
  
  A. am  B. is  C. are  D. /
  
  20. ---What ______ you see in the picture?
  
  ---I can see some flowers.
  
  A. must  B. can  C. are  D. do
  
  二. 完形填空
  
  This is a picture of Kat’s ____1____. What can we ____2_____ in the picture? Look ____3____ it, please. The man ____4____ the black coat is Kate’s father, Mr. Green. The ____5____ in the red sweater is Mrs. Green. They ____6____ young. The baby is Kate. The little boy is Kate’s ____7_____, Jim. ___8____ the man behind Mrs. Green? Oh, he’s ____9___ brother, Mr. Read. He ____10____ young, too.
  
  1. A. families  B. family  C. parents  D. brothers
  
  2. A. look     B. do     C. see      D.put
  
  3. A. at       B. after    C. for      D. up
  
  4. A. on      B. of      C. in       D. to
  
  5. A. man     B. girl    C. women   D. woman
  
  6. A. are      B. is      C. look like  D. looking
  
  7. A. sister    B. brother  C. father    D. aunt
  
  8. A. What’s   B. Where’s C. Who’s    D. How is
  
  9. A. his      B. her     C. our      D. their
  
  10. A. looks   B. am      C. look    D. very
  
  三. 在B栏中找出A栏英语句子的正确答语
  
  (A)                        (B)
  
  1. How are you?              A. I am in Row 6.
  
  2. Can you spell it, please?      B. Fine, thank you.
  
  3. How do you do?            C. Yes, b-o-o-k, book.
  
  4. What row are you in?        D. It is ten.
  
  5. What’s two plus eight?       E. Nice to meet you, too.
  
  6. Nice to meet you.           F. I am 14.
  
  7. How old are you?           G. Wang Ping is.
  
  8. Who’s not here?            H. It’s here.
  
  9. Where is the bag?           I. It’s a book.
  
  10. What is this in English?     J. How do you do?
  
  四. 完成对话:在对话后面的句子中选出正确的填入空白处
  
  Jim:  Excuse me, Ann. Whose black dog is this? Is it yours?
  
  Ann:  Let me have a look.________1_______. I think it’s Sam’s. My dog is brown.
  
  Jim:  Sam, look at the dog behind the tree.________2__________?
  
  Sam:  Sorry, it isn’t mine. My dog is black and white. I think it looks like Mary’s.
  
  Jim:  _____________3______________?
  
  Sam:  She’s my friend. Look! She’s over there. Let’s go and ask her.
  
  Jim:  _______________4_______________.
  
  Sam:  Hi, Mary! Is that dog yours?
  
  Mary: _______________5_______________.
  
  Sam:  It’s a lovely dog! Don’t lose it!
  
  Mary: Yes, thank you.
  
  A. Who’s Mary
  
  B. OK, let’s go
  
  C. Oh, no it’s not mine
  
  D. Oh, yes. It’s mine
  
  E. Is it yours
  
  五. 用所给单词的适当形式填空
  
  1. ________ (He) pen is in ______ (I) pencil-box.
  
  2. ________ (You) shoes ________ (be) under the bed.
  
  3. ________ (Who) new ruler is this?
  
  4. ---Are these trousers _______ (you)?
  
  ---No, they aren’t ________ (we)
  
  5. It’s time ________ (go) and play games.
  
  6. This is my pen. Please give it to ________ (I).
  
  7. I have two ________ (baby).
  
  8. Look! That is a ________ (China) car.
  
  9. It is __________ (my teacher) sweater.
  
  10. Now her ________ ( parent) are in America.

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