高考英语必备:短文改错答题技巧


  短文改错题检测考生发现、判断、纠正文章错误的能力.进而考察学生的词法、句法及行文逻辑等方面的水平,考察学生在语篇中综合运用英语的能力考生英语水平的高低完全可以从这一题型体现出来然而很多考生对该题感到束手无策.关键在于找不到错误、不会找错误。那么怎样找错误、发现错误就成了解题的关键。

  短文改错解题思路和检查原则:

  1.句中各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词;

  2. 谓语动词的时态、语态;

  3.非谓语动词的用法;

  4.名词的单、复数,格的使用是否正确;

  5.定冠词和不定冠词是否正确;

  6.代词的格和性的使用是否有误;

  7.定语从句中关系代词、副词是否准确无误;

  8.并列句中的并列连词、主从复合句中的从属连词用的是否得当。短文改错解题四原则:改动以最少为原则; 虚词以添加或删除为原则; 实词以改变词形为原则以保持句子原意为原则。短文改错解题步骤:通读全文,掌握大意; 整句分析,逐行推敲

  反复通读,复查验证。解题注意要点和能力培养:

  1.核对错项时,若的确有一时难以改出的地方,可以参考所改动项是否基本符合“1:1:8”的比例。即多一词1个,缺词1个,错词8个。

  2.核对改正的语法项目是否有重复。因为短文改错往往覆盖面广,一般不会出现重复考查某个语法点的现象。

  3.核对答题符号是否规范,位置是否准确,看看有无遗漏符号,忽略字母大小写和拼写等问题。

  短文改错常见错误类型:

  1. 谓语动词的错误是历年考试的重点和热点,常见动词错误类型有①一般现在时与一般过去时错用;②and前后动词时态不一致;③主谓不一致; ④缺少动词,特别是be动词; ⑤第三人称单数形式错用;⑥主动语态和被动语态错用。 Theydid not want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote allmy time to my studies.(did改为do,错误类型属于①) As weclimbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and toldstories. (visiting 改为visited, 错误类型属于②) Therewill an important game next month. (will后加be,错误类型属于④) Oneevening she told me that something happened when her parents wasout. ( was 改为were,错误类型属于③)

  2. 名词的常见错误:单复数名词错用,可数名词与不可数名词错用。I’ll get good marks in all mysubject.(subject改为subjects) Theirword were a great encouragement to me.(word改为words) Withoutenough knowledges, you can never teach well.(knowledges改为knowledge)

  3. 连词错误 连词包括关系代词、副词,并列连词and/ or/but等。关于连词,一般考查从句关系who/whom/whose/what/which/how/why/when/where/if/whether等。 I havea good friend who’s name is Liu Mei. (错用了who的所有格形式,改为whose) I teachthem, play with them, but watch them growing up.(此处应该是并列的关系而非转折,but改为and) Cleveras she is, but she works very hard.(as意为“尽管”,不能再跟but连用,所以去掉but)

  4. 冠词错误:误用a和an(根据单词的第一个音素来判定);误用a/an和the(固定搭配,或泛指、特指;多冠词或少冠词) We maybe one family and live under a same roof. (a 改为the,thesame 是固定搭配) Aseveryone knows, it’s famous mountain with all kinds ofpants. (mountain是可数名词需用冠词,所以其前加a) I hopeyou have pleasant journey.(journey是可数名词,故have后加a)

  5. 形容词和副词错误:系动词后用形容词(be/am/is/are/was/were/become/go/感官性动词smell/feel);词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动词、形容词)。I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully timetogether. (time是名词所以要用形容词wonderful修饰) Mypronunciation was terribly.(was后用形容词,terribly改为terrible.)

  6. 代词错误:代词的主格和宾格(I / me;he/him; she/ her; we/ us they/ them )错误;反身代词(myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/ourselves)使用错误;代词的单数和复数使用错误;代词指代错误;多代词或少代词。 Soon Ibegan to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning toexpress me in simple English. (me 改为myself) One dayI wrote a little story and showed to my teacher.(to前加it) If anyone of us had any difficulty in our life and study, the other wouldhelp him out. (other后加s) What’smore, you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care ofhim. (him改为them)

  7. 非谓语动词的常见错误:不定式、动名词作主语、宾语时;and连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致(尤其距离较远时);介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接动名词或不定式。 Soon Ibegan to enjoy talk to myself on paper. (enjoy 后需接动名词,talk改为talking) But hisparents think go to college is more important than playing sports.(go作主语,应改为going) Children may not develop the habit of read and the abilityto enjoy themselves. (介词后用动名词形式作宾语,read改为reading) Iparticularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you andsaw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees. (and连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致,故saw改为seeing)

  8. 介词错误:词组中的介词误用;介词意思理解偏差;介词的多用或少用 Thereare too many people among my family. (among改为in,in myfamily 为固定搭配) I wasso tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched thepillow. (去掉at, themoment 引导从句)


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