高中英语必背基础句型和时态,一定要掌握!


  必背句型

  句型1:There+be +主语+地点状语/ 时间状语

  There're three books on the table.

  桌子上有三本书。

  句型2:What's wrong with+sb./sth.?

  What's wrong with your telephone?

  你的手机有什么毛病?

  句型3:How do you like…?

  How do you like China?你觉得中国怎么样?

  句型4:What do you like about…?

  What do you like about China?

  你喜欢中国的什么?

  句型5:had better(not)+动词原形

  You'd better ask that policeman over there.

  你最好去问问那边的那个警察。

  句型7: Thank+sb.+for (doing) sth.

  Thank you for coming to see me.

  感谢你来看我。

  句型8: So+be/情态动词/助动词+主语

  He is a student. So am I.

  他是一个学生,我也是。

  句型9: not…until…

  He didn't have supper until his parents came back.

  直到他的父母回来他才吃饭。

  句型10: 比较级十and+比较级

  The baby cried harder and harder.

  那孩子哭得越来越厉害。

  句型11: the+比较级,the+比较级

  The more one has,the more one wants.

  拥有的越多,想要的越多。

  句型12:…as+adj./adv.+as …

  …not as(so)+adj./adv.+as …

  Last Sunday the weather was not so wet as it is today.

  上个星期天的天气不如今天的天气潮湿。

  句型13: more/less +adj.+than…

  I think art is less important than music.

  我认为艺术不如音乐重要。

  句型14:stop…from doing sth.

  The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from blowing the earth away.

  绿色长城将阻挡风吹走土壤。

  句型15: both…and…

  Both you and I are students.

  我和你都是学生。

  句型16: either…or…

  Either you or he is wrong.

  不是你错就是他错。

  句型17: nei ther…nor…

  Neither he nor I am a student.

  我和他都不是学生。

  句型18: … as soon as…

  As soon as I see him, I'l lgive him the message.

  我一见 到他就把你的消息告诉他。

  句型19: so+adj./adv.+that…

  I was so tired that I didn't want to speak.

  我累得连话也 不想说了。

  句型20: Though … 十主句

  Though I like writing to my pen-friend,it takes a lot of time.

  虽然我喜欢给笔友写信,但它要耗费我大量时间。

  句型21: be going to

  This afternoon I'm going to buy an English book.

  今 天下午我要去买本英语书。

  句型22: be different from

  I think this is different from Chinese names.

  我认为这 与汉语名字不同。

  句型23: Welcome (back) to…

  Welcome back to school!

  欢迎回到学校!

  句型24: have fun doing

  We're going to have fun learning English this term.

  这学期我们将兴味盎然地学习讲英语。

  句型25: …because…/…, so..…

  I don't know all your names because this is our first lesson.

  因为这是我们的第一节课,所以我并不知道你们所有人的名字。

  句型26: Why don't you…/ Why not…?

  Why don't you come to school a little earlier?

  为什么不 早点到校呢?

  句型27: make it

  Let's make it half past nine.

  让我们定在九点半吧!

  句型28: have nothing to do

  They have nothing to do every day.

  他们每天无所事事。

  句型29: be sure/be sure of/ about sth. /be sure to do sth.

  I was not sure of/about the way, so I asked someone.

  我对于怎么走没有把握,所以我问别人了。

  句型30: between…and…

  There is a shop between the hospital and the school.

  在 那家医院和那所学校之间有一家商店。

  句型31: keep sb. /sth. +adj. /V-ing /介词补语 /adv.

  You must keep your classroom clean.

  你们必须保持教 室干净。

  Sorry to have kept you waiting.

  对不起,让你久等。

  句型32: find+宾语+宾补

  He finds it very hard to travel around the big city.他发 现要环游这个大城市是很难的。

  句型33:…not…any more / longer

  The old man doesn't travel any more.

  这位老人不再旅 行了。

  句型34: What's the weather like…?

  What's the weather like in spring in your hometown?

  在你们家乡,春天天气怎么样?

  句型35: There is no time to do/have no time to do

  There was no time to think.

  没有时间思考。

  I have no time to go home for lunch.

  我没有时间回家 吃午饭。

  句型36: Help oneself to…

  Help yourself to some fish.

  吃鱼吧!

  句型37: used to do

  I used to read this kind of story books.

  我过去常读这种 故事书。

  句型38: borrow…from

  I borrowed a book from him.

  我从他那借 了一本书。

  句型39: lend sb. sth. /lend sth. to sb.

  He lent me a story book/He lent a story book to me.

  他 借了本故事书给我。

  句型40: have been to

  Have you ever been to Hawaii?

  你曾去过夏威夷吗?

  句型41: have gone to

  Where's he? He's gone to Washington.

  他在哪儿?他 去华盛顿了。

  句型42: be famous for

  Hawaii is famous for its beautiful beaches.夏威夷以它 美丽的海滩而出名。

  句型43: No matter+疑问句+主句

  No matter when you come,you are welcomed.

  无论你 们什么时候来,都受欢迎。

  句型44: be afraid (of/to do/that..)

  Don't be afraid of making mistakes when speaking English.

  当说英语时不要害怕犯错误。

  句型45: …as…as possible/…as…as sb. can

  I hope to see him as soon as possible.

  我希望能尽快见 到他。

  He ran here as fast as he could.

  他尽最大努力跑到这儿。

  句型46: practise /enjoy/finish doing

  Tom enjoys playing football very much.

  汤姆很喜欢踢 足球。

  He finished reading the story book.

  他看完了那本故事 书。

  句型47: ask sb . (not) to do sth.

  Her mother ask her to clean the room.

  她妈妈叫她打扫房间。

  句型48:be worth (doing) …

  This book is worth reading.

  这本书值得读。

  句型49: seem to do / seem +adj. / (介词短语)

  He seems to be angry.

  他似乎生气了。

  The house seems too noisy.

  这房子似乎太吵了。

  句型50: It's said that…

  It's said that one of the most dangerous sharks is the Great White Shark.

  据说大白鲨是最危险的鲨鱼之一。

  8 大时态结构

  一、一般现在时

  1、 概念:表示经常发生的情况;有规律出现的情况;总是发生的;事实真理。

  2. 时间状语: Always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week (day, year, month…), on Sundays (on Mondays…) , etc.

  3. 基本结构: 主语+动词原形(如主语为第三人称单数,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式)

  4. 否定形式:主语+am / is / are+not+其他;此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加 don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用 doesn't,同时还原行为动词。

  5. 一般疑问句:把 be 动词放于句首;用助动词 do 提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用 does,同时,还原行为动词。

  eg:

  ①It seldom snows here. 这里很少下雪。

  ②He is always ready to help others. 他总是乐于帮助别人。

  ③Action speaks louder than words. 事实胜雄辩。

  二、一般过去时

  1. 概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

  2. 时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last (year,night,month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time,etc.

  3. 基本结构:主语+动词的过去式或 be 的过去式+名词

  4. 否定形式:主语+was / were+not+其他;在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

  5. 一般疑问句:was 或 were 放于句首;用助动词 do 的过去式 did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

  eg:

  ①She often came to help us in those days.那些天她经常来帮助我们。

  ②I didn't know you were so busy.我不知道你这么忙。

  三、一般将来时

  1 . 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

  2. 时间状语:Tomorrow, next day (week,month, year…), soon, in a few minutes, by…, the day after tomorrow,etc.

  3. 基本结构:主语+am/is / are+going to+do+其它;主语+will / shall+do+其它

  4. 否定形式:主语+am /is/ are not going to +do;主语+will / shall not do+其它

  5. 一般疑问句:be 放于句首;will / shall 提到句首。(首字母大写)

  eg:

  ①They are going to have a competition with us in studies.他们将在学习中与我们竞争。

  ②It is going to rain.天要下雨了。

  四、一般过去将来时

  1. 概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

  2. 时间状语:The next day (morning, year…), the following month (week…), etc.

  3. 基本结构:主语+was / were+going to+do+其它;主语+would / should+do+其它

  4. 否定形式:主语+was / were+not+going to+do +其它;主语+would/should+not+do.

  5. 一般疑问句:was 或 were 放于句首;would / should 提到句首

  eg:

  ①He said he would go to Beijing the next day. 他说他第二天要去北京。

  ②I asked who was going there. 我问,谁要去那里。

  五、现在进行时

  1. 概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

  2. 时间状语:Now, at this time, days, look, listen, etc.

  3. 基本结构:主语+be+doing+其它

  4. 否定形式:主语+be+not+doing+其它

  5. 一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

  eg:

  ①Are you feeling good today?你今天感觉如何?

  ②He is doing well in his lessons.在课上他表现得很好。

  六、过去进行时

  1. 概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

  2. 时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time 或以 when 引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。

  3. 基本结构: 主语+was / were+doing+其它

  4. 否定形式:主语+was/were+not+doing+其它

  5. 一般疑问句:把 was 或 were 放于句首。(第一个字母大写)

  eg:

  ①At that time she was working in a company. 那段时间她在一家公司工作。

  ②When he came in, I was reading a newspaper. 他进来时,我正在读报纸。

  七、现在完成时

  1. 概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

  2. 时间状语:yet, already, just, never, ever, so far, by now, since+时间点,for+时间段,recently, lately, in the past few years,etc.

  3. 基本结构:主语+have / has+过去分词+其它

  4. 否定形式:主语+have / has+not+过去分词+其它

  5. 一般疑问句:have 或 has 放句首。

  eg:

  ①I've written an article. 我已经写了一篇论文。

  ②The countryside has changed a lot in the past few years. 在过去的几年,农村发生了巨大的变化。

  八、过去完成时

  1. 概念:过去发生或者已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

  2. 时间状语:before, by the end of last year (term, month), etc.

  3. 基本结构:had+done.

  4. 否定形式:had+not+done.

  5. 一般疑问句:had 放于句首。

  6. 用法:

  (1)在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句中。

  eg:

  She said (that) she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她从来没有去过巴黎。

  (2)在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。

  eg:

  ①When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。

  (3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean,suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"。

  eg:

  ①We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

  ②I had hardly opened the door when he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打了我。

  (注意: had hardly… when... 刚......就......)

  ③He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it. 他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了。

  (注意:had no sooner…than 刚…… 就……)


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