英语学习:非谓语动词十大实用解题原则


  非谓语动词主要包括to do, -ing和-ed三种形式,可是其用法非常广泛,它不仅是高考单项选择题测试的一个重点,而且也是完形填空、阅读理解、短文改错的重要考查内容。为了能更好地掌握非谓语动词的用法,笔者在教学实践中总结出十条实用的解题原则,并且还用相关的题目来解释这些原则。根据这些原则,相信同学们可以轻松地应对非谓语动词。

  原则一、两个句子必须要用连词连接,如果没有连词连接,则需要用非谓语动词

  例1. _________ many times, but he still couldn’t understand it.

  A. Having been told       B. Having told      C. He had been told      D. Though he had been told

  例2._________ many times, he still couldn’t understand it.

  A. Having been told       B. Having told      C. He had been told      D. Though he had told

  解析:例1中有连词but连接,表明前后都是句子,所以答案为C。

  例2中后面是一个句子,而且没有连词,所以前面不是句子,应该用非谓语动词,根据句意此处为被动,所以答案为A。

  原则二、不及物动词无-ed形式非谓语动词,及物动词有宾语时用-ing形式,无宾语时用-ed形式

  例3. ____________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police.

  A. Having lost                   B. Lost                 C. Being lost                D. Losing

  解析:lose为及物动词,现在后面没有宾语,所以用-ed形式,答案为B。

  例4. __________, I really believe that I’d prefer not to make any change now.

  A. Considered all the possibilities                     B. Taking all the possibilities into consideration

  C. Taken all the possibilities into consideration  D. Giving all the possibilities

  解析:把。。。考虑进来结构为take sth into consideration,现在take后面有宾语all the possibilities,所以用-ing形式,答案为B。

  原则三、being done 表示“正在被”,一般不作状语,只作定语。非谓语动词的完成时形式to have done或having done强调该动作发生在句子谓语动词之前

  例5. __ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead.

  A. Fail               B. Failed            C. To fail             D. Having failed

  解析:根据句意“我们没有打通电话,就给他们发了个邮件”,没有打通电话应该发生在发邮件之前,所以用having done,答案为D。

  例6. Tim Bemers-Lee is generally considered _____ the World Wide Web, on which all the information is shared by all.

  A. to have founded       B. having founded       C. founding                D. to found

  解析:根据句意,Tim Bemers-Lee创立万维网应该是过去的事情,而且be considered后面应该用动词不定式,所以应该用to have done,答案为A。

  原则四、非谓语动词作定语时,表示将来用-to do,表正在进行用-ing,表示已经完成用-ed

  例7. The play_____ next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture.

  A.produced                                        B.being produced

  C.to be produced                                    D.having been produced

  解析:根据本题中的时间状语next month,可知the play将要于下月被创作出来,表将来应该用to do,所以答案为C。

  例8.The trees _____ in the storm have been moved off the road.

  A. being blown down    B. blown down       C. blowing down      D. to blow down

  解析:根据句意“被暴风雨刮倒的树已经从路上移走了”,树被刮倒是过去已经完成的动作,表已经完成用-ed形式,所以答案为B。

  原则五、介词后跟-ing形式,可以在-ing前加逻辑主语

  例9. The discovery of new evidence led to ______________.

  A. the thief having been caught                              B. the thief to be caught

  C. catch the thief                                           D. the thief being caught

  解析:本题led to中的to是介词,后面应该用-ing形式,the thief作-ing的逻辑主语,所以答案为D。

  例10. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ____ could be heard outside the classroom.

  A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed

  C. being opened and closed                D. to open and close

  解析:本题the noise of中的of是介词,后面应该用-ing形式,desks作-ing的逻辑主语,所以答案为C。


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