中考英语语法专题详解十:简单句并列句


简单句

(一)基本概念

只包含一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子,称作简单句。在简单句中主语和谓语是句子的主干,是句子的核心。除了主语和谓语外,简单句中还可以有宾语、表语、补语、状语、定语等。

(二)句型结构 简单句可归纳为五个基本句型。

1.主语+谓语  这种句型简称为主谓结构,其谓语一般都是不及物动词,后面可以有其他成分修饰。

如:Things change. He smiles happily.

2.主语+连系动词+表语  这种句型称为主系表结构。

如:Mr. Smith is an artist.   The hamburger tastes good.

注:表语位于系动词之后。常由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、动词的-ing、从句来充当。

常见系动词有:

(1)表状态系动词---be 如:

He is a teacher.   He is ill.

(2)持续系动词--用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,常见有keep, remain, stay,如:

He always kept silent。

(3)表像系动词--用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look,如:

He looks tired.

He seems (to be) very sad.

(4)感官系动词---感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste,如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft. That sounds interesting.

This flower smells very sweet. It tastes delicious.

(5)变化系动词--这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come,等。。如:

He became mad after that. I get tired.    She grew tall。

3. 主语+谓语+宾语 谓语一般多是及物动词。宾语有两种 :间接宾语和直接宾语

如:We like music.

I had eggs for breakfast.

4.主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语

一般间接宾语位于直接宾语的前面,有时它们也可交换位置,这是需要在间接宾语的前面加上介词to 或for 。

如:He gave his sister the book.=He gave the book to his sister.

常见双宾结构:

可转换成带to结构的有:

bring sb. sth (bring sth to sb)。 give sb. sth (give sth to sb.) lend sb. sth (lend sth to sb) pass sb sth (pass sth to sb) return sb. sth (return sth to sb) send sb sth (send sth to sb)

show sb sth (show sth. to sb.) tell sb sth (tell sth to sb ) write sb sth (write sth to sb )

可转换成带for结构的有:

buy sb sth (buy sth for sb ) do sb sth (do sth for sb ) get sb sth (get sth for sb )

make sb. sth (make sth for sb) pay sb. sth (pay sth for sb) sing sb sth (sing sth for sb )

5.主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+宾补

宾语补足语常由形容词、名词、数词、介词短语、不带to的不定式或v+ing、V+ed等充当。

如:I found the book easy.(形容词easy作补语)

I'll let him go.(不定式go用作补语)

(三) There be句型

1、结构:There be句型是一种主语后置的倒装句,常表示某处有某人或某物。

具体结构为:There be+人/物+其他+(地点)。

2、用法:

(1)、There be句型中动词be单复数形式要跟there be之后的主语保持一致。并且要根据就近一致原则来变换be 的单复数形式。

如:There is a desk and two chairs in the room.

There are two chairs and a desk in the room.

(2)、There be句型中的be 有各种时态,有时还会在be前插入情态动词。

如: There is going to be a meeting tonight.

There must be some flowers in the box.

(3)、There be句型可换成There come / go,以引起注意,加强语气。

如:There comes the bus.

(4)、 There be句型的否定句和疑问句变化主要是be之后加not和be提到there之前。

如:There isn’t any rain these days.

Are there any people in the room?

并列句

(一) 基本概念及构成

两个或两个以上的简单句用and, but, or, so等并列连词连在一起构成的句子,叫做并列句,其基本结构是“简单句+并列连词+简单句”。

如: I like action movies but I don't like thrillers.

Hurry up,or you'll be late.

(二)连词用法

1、表并列关系的连词有and,both…and…两者都, as well as还有, not only…but (also)不但…而且…, neither…nor既不…也不…等。

如:Work hard, and you’ll pass the exam.

She not only sings but also dances.

2、表转折关系的有but, however然而,while然而,still, yet然而等。

如:The film is not perfect, however, it's good.

I like action movies but I don't like thrillers.

I like tea while she likes coffee.(表对比)

3、表选择关系的有or, either…or…或者…或者…, not…but…不是…而是…等。

如:Hurry up, or you’ll be late.

Either Tom or his sisters are coming.

4、表因果关系的有for因为, so所以, because等。

如:I'd better take an umbrella, for it is going to rain.

The manager was ill so she didn’t go to work.

(三)特殊的并列句

1. 祈使句 + and +一般将来时的句子

如:Work hard, and you’ll pass the exam.

2. 祈使句 + or + 一般将来时的句子

如:Hurry up, or you’ll be late.


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