中考英语语法专题详解九:非谓语动词


一、 动词不定式

1、 构成:动词不定式基本形式为: to+动词原形。有些动词不定式不带to。

否定形式为:not (to)+动词原形。

2、功能及用法:

(1)、用作主语

多数情况用it作形式主语,把真正的主语——动词不定式置于句末,特别是不定式短语较长时。动词不定式作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

For him, to talk with his mother is necessary.=It is necessary for him to talk with his mother.

(2)、用作表语

动词不定式作表语,常说明主语的内容、性质、特征。常可转换成主语。如:

The best way to improve your English is to join an English club.=To join an English club is the best way to improve your English.

(3)、用作宾语

★可以接带to的动词不定式作宾语的动词主要有:要求选择同意(ask, choose, agree),期望决定学习(expect, hope, decide, learn),宁可拒绝假装知道(prefer, refuse, pretend, know),希望想要愿意(wish, want/need, would like / love)等。如:

We decided to talk to some students.

He prefers to eat white bread and rice.

★动词decide, know, learn, show, teach, tell…后可用“疑问词+to的不定式短语”作宾语,但why后面的不定式不带to。如:

Could you please tell me where to park my car?

★动词feel, find, make, think等后面,可以用it作形式宾语代替真正的宾语—动词不定式,句子结构是sb. feel / find / make / …+ it+adj. / n.+to do…如:

I find it difficult to remember everything.

★既可接动词不定式又可接v-ing形式作宾语,意思差别不太大的动词有begin, start, like, love等。如:

Then I started to watch English-language TV.

I like to eat vegetables.

★后接动词不定式或v-ing形式作宾语,意思差别较大的动词有forget, remember等。后接不定式作宾语,表动作尚未发生;后接ving形式作宾语,表动作已经发生。stop to do停下来做另外一件事;stop doing停止做、不做当前这件事。try to do尽力做,try doing试试看;go on to do接着做另外的事,go on doing继续做原来的事。如:

When I left home, I had forgotten to bring it with me.

I stopped using them last year.

(4)、用作定语

★句子的主语或宾语是动词不定式的逻辑主语,不定式与其所修饰的名词、代词等存在逻辑的动宾关系时,用动词不定式的主动式。如:

I have so much homework to do today.

It’s a good place to visit.

★作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,且与所修饰的词之间有动宾关系,要在不定式后加适当的介词。如:

I need a room to live in.

(5)、用作补语

★在主、被动语态句里用带to的动词不定式作补语的动词主要有:要求允许提议(ask, allow, advise),期望邀请鼓励(expect, suppose, invite, encourage),教导告诉想要(teach, tell, want),等待希望愿意(wait for, wish, would like / love)。如:

She asked me not to speak Chinese in English class.

★下列动词,多数动词是感官动词和使役动词,当动词不定式作补语时,在主动语态句里不带to,被动语态句里要将省略的to补上。包括四“看”:look at, observe, see, watch,三“让”:have, let, make,二“听”:hear, listen to,一“感觉”:feel,一“注意”:notice。如:

This picture makes me feel tense!   I was made to say sorry to him.

★help后接动词不定式作补语,to可带可不带。如:

Using email English helps you write quickly.

★be said, be sure, happen, seem等后面可以接带to的动词不定式作主语的补语。如:

He doesn’t seem to have many friends.

Be sure not to miss them if they come to a city near you.

(6)、用作状语, 其逻辑主语要和句子的主语一致。

★目的状语,置于句首或句末,置于句首时常表示强调。如:

A group of young people came here to(in order to) discuss this question.

★原因状语,多见于“sb.+be+adj.+to do…”结构句中。如:

I’m sorry to trouble you. I’m glad to see you.

★结果状语,多见于“too…to”,“enough to…”结构句中。如:

Then I’m too tired to do well. What should I do?

The room needs to be big enough for three people to live in.

★独立动词不定式多用作插入语,表示说话人的心理状态或对事情的看法。如:

To be honest, I only eat food that tastes good.

To begin with, she spoke too quickly, and I couldn’t understand every word.

(7)、动词不定式的复合结构

动词不定式的复合结构是“for / of sb. to do sth.”,for / of引出不定式动作的逻辑主语。这种结构在句子中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。

不定式复合结构作主语时,需注意:

It’s + 形容词 + for / of + sb + to do sth. for前面的形容词是dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, heavy, important, interesting, necessary等,一般说明不定式动作的特性,不说明人的特性。如:  It’s dangerous for children to swim in the river.

当上面的形容词指的是sb的性质时,用介词of。这些形容词往往修饰人:careful, clever, foolish, good, kind, nice, wise,bad, polite, careless

如:It’s very nice of you to say so.

(8)、带疑问词的不定式短语

动词不定式前面可以带疑问代词what, which, who或疑问副词how, when, where, why等。这种结构起名词的作用,在句子里用作宾语、主语、表语等,或者单独使用。如:

I don’t know what to do next.

Where to go is not decided yet.

单独使用时相当于一个特殊疑问句,在复合句中则可变为一个从句。

What to do next? =What will we / you do next?

Can you tell me how to do that?=Can you tell me how I should do that?

(9)、动词不定式的否定式

不定式的否定式是not to do…,不带to的不定式的否定式是not do…如:

Sometimes they decide not to talk to each other.

(10)常见的与不定式连用的词组和句型。

Why not do…?=Why don’t you do …? had better (not) do …

would rather do … prefer to do rather than do

Could/Would/Will you please…? It takes sb +时间/金钱+ to do sth.

It’ s time to do… It’ s one’s turn to…

如:   Why not take a holiday?

It takes me an hour to walk there.

二、 动名词

1、构成: 动词原形+ing

2、功能及用法:

动名词除具有动词的性质外,还具有名词的性质。动名词在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、宾语补足语等,但不能用作谓语。

(1)。用作主语, 谓语动词用单数。如:

Eating too much is bad for your health.

注意:动名词作主语经常采用it作形式主语的句型。

It’s no use crying. 哭没有什么用处。

(2)。用作表语,可转换成主语。如:

Her favorite sport is skating. =Skating is her favorite sport.

注意:不定式和动名词均可用作主语和表语,区别是:动名词多指笼统的、抽象的概念,而不定式则多指具体的、一次性的动作。

(3)。用作宾语,放在动词或介词之后。如:

She likes singing and dancing.

Thank you for helping us.

(4)。用作定语,位于所修饰词之前,表示所修饰的词的用途、所属关系等。如:

This is our reading room.

Betty won the first prize in the singing competition.

★英语中,某些动词(或形容词)只能与ing形式即动名词连用。

一直忙于练习,(keep, be busy,practice,)

想要继续完成,(feel like, keep on, finish,)

习惯期待花费,(be used to, look forward to, spend)

介意考虑放弃,(mind, consider, give up)

禁不住麻烦怎么样(can’t help, have trouble/problems (in), what/how about)

建议喜欢开心 (suggest , enjoy, have fun )

★还有一些结构:

do+some+doing 如: do some cooking/ shopping / cleaning/ washing/ reading/

go+doing 如: go shopping/ fishing / swimming/ skating/ boating/ hiking / sightseeing

no use (good) doing sth 做……没用 如: It’s no good complaining.

without+dong sth 没有做…… 如:。 She kept sitting there without talking to anybody.

no+dong …禁止,不准 如:No parking!

pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事 如: You must pay attention to protecting him。

put one’s effort into doing sth 全力以赴做某事

如:If you put your effort into learning English, you will improve it.

三、 分词

考点聚焦

1、构成:英语中的分词有两种:现在分词和过去分词。及物动词的现在分词由“动词+ing”构成,表示正在进行和主动意义。过去分词基本形式是“动词+ed”,表示已经完成和被动意义,但也有不规则形式。

2、功能及用法

(1)。作定语   分词可用来修饰名词或代词,并和所修饰的词在逻辑上有主谓关系。

前置定语 如:  What exciting news it is!

后置定语 如:   Do you know the girl sitting under the tree?

There comes a girl dressed in red.

(2)。作表语   分词作表语,相当于形容词。现在分词作表语通常表示主语所具有的性质或特征,含有“令人……的”意思。过去分词作表语多表示主语所处的情形或状态,含有“某人感到……的”意思。如:

The story was very interesting .   I was interested in the movie.

(3)。作补语

现在分词作宾语补足语,宾语和现在分词(主动意义)有逻辑上的主谓关系。过去分词作补足语,宾语和过去分词 (被动意义)有逻辑上的动宾关系。

分词通常用在see,hear, watch,notice,feel,find等感官动词或have,get,make等使役动词的宾语之后,补充说明宾语的动作或状态。过去分词在动词have,get之后作宾语补足语时,常常表示这动作不是由主语完成的,而是由别人完成的。如:

I found the boy crying in the corner. (主谓关系,正在进行)

I want to have my hair cut/ have my bike repaired/ get my ears pierced. (被动)

★现在分词和不定式作宾语补足语在意义上有所不同。现在分词作宾语补足语,表示动作正在进行,即动作处在发生过程中,还没有结束;而不定式作宾语补足语表示经常性的动作或动作的全过程。如:

I saw him going out. (分词,正在发生)

I see him go out every day.  (不定式,经常性动作)

I heard him knock three times.是的,我听见他敲了三下。(不定式,全过程)

(4)。作状语,表时间、原因、伴随、结果、让步、方式等。

现在分词作状语,一般句子主语就是分词的主语。

Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up.(= When the students saw the teacher entering the room,they stood up.)(时间状语,主动)

Not knowing what to do about it,I asked my teacher for advice.(原因状语,主动)

The teaher came in, followed by his students.(伴随状语,被动)


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