中考英语语法专题详解三:介词、连词


介词、连词 一. 介词 1. 介词概述:介词表示它与后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。介词是虚词,不能单独做句子成分。介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中范围内还应学一个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。 2. 常用介词的意义和用法。 ⑴ 时间或地点介词in、on、at的用法区别: 表示时间时, in表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on表示在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at表示在某个时刻或者瞬间; 表示地点时, in表示在某个范围之内, on表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at则表示在某个具体的场所或地点。如: He was born on the night of May 10th. I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning. His glasses are on the desk. My brother is at the bus stop. ⑵ after与in表示时间的用法区别:“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在…时刻之后”常用于一般过去时态;“in+(一段时间)”表示“在(多久)之后”,常用于将来时态。如: He said that he would come back after 6:00. My father is coming back from Astralia in about a month. ⑶ since与for表示时间的用法区别:“since+(具体时刻/that-从句)”表示“自从…起一直到现在”,“for +(一段时间)”表示“持续一段时间”,都常用于完成时态;如: My father has worked in this factory since 1970. My father has worked in this factory for over 30 years. ⑷ by、in与with表示方式的用法区别:都可以表示“工具、手段”,但是by主要表示“乘坐”某个交通工具或“以……方式”,在被动句中可以表示动作的执行者;in表示“使用”某种语言/文字,with表示“使用”某个具体的工具、手段。如: We write with our hands and walk with our feet. Please speak in English. Let’s go to the zoo by bus. It was invented by Adison. ⑸ about与on的用法区别:都可以表示“有关…”,但是about的意义比较广,而on主要表示“有关…(专题/课程)”。如: Tom is going to give a speech on the history of China. They are talking about the English test. ⑹ through与across、over的用法区别: through指“穿过…(门洞/人群/树林)”; across和over可以指“跨越…(街道/河流)”,可互换,但是表示“翻过…”时只能用over. 如: Just then a kangaroo (鼠)ran across the road.(就在那时一只袋鼠跑过路面) There is a bridge across/over the river.(河上有座桥) They climbed over the mountain and arrived there (他们翻过大山到达了那里)/ The visitors went through a big gate into another park.(参观者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园) (7)as与like的区别:两个词都表示“像……”,但是as译为“作为……”,表示的是职业、职务、作用等事实,而like译为“像……一样”,表示外表,不是事实。如: Let me speak to you as a teacher.(我以老师的身份和你讲话。) Let me speak to you like a teacher.(让我像一位老师一样和你讲话) (8)in front of 与in the front of:in front of“在…的前面”, 与in the front of“在…的前部”。如: A group of people was standing in front of the hall. In the front of the hall stood a group of people. (12)except与besides的区别:except“除了”,表示排除掉某人物,即不包含;而besides“除了”则表示包含,即“不仅……又……”。如: Everyone went to the park except Tom.(除了Tom,大家都去了公园)(Tom没有去公园)/ Besides maths he also studied many other subjects.(除了数学之外,他还学其他许多功课)(“数学”也是他学的功课之一) 连词 1.连词概述:连词是一种虚词,用于连接单词,短语或句子,但不单独做句子成分。按照连词的性质,可将连词分为并列连词和从属连词。并列连词如:and,but,or,for等,它们即可连接单词,短语,又可连接句子。从属连词如:when,before ,because等,它们主要引导名词性从句。 2.常见连词的用法: 1)并列连词 的用法: 并列连词有:and, but, or, nor, so, for yet, however, as well as, both...and, not only...but also, either...or, neither...nor, still, And: 连接单词短语句子 。如:Tom and I study in the same school. But, or :I have a pen but no pencil. / Would you like coffee or tea? Nothing but除了,只有: I did nothing but watch it. Or表示否则:如: Hurry up or you will miss the train. for 表示后面的句子是原因。如: He is good at piano for he practices harder than others. Not only…but also 不仅…而且。可并列主、谓、宾、表及句子。主语并列时,谓语要就近一致。如: Not only he but also I am a nurse. As well as 以及,同样。并列单词、短语、句子。并列主语时,动词要随前面的主语变化 .如:He works as well as he can Either…or 既…又…,或…或…,并列主、谓、宾、表及状语 ,如:Either come in or go out. Neither…nor 既不…也不, 并列主、谓、宾、表、状语,并列主语时,谓语就近一致。如:Neither you nor he is lazy. Both…and 和,既…也,并列主、谓、宾及表语。I can speak both English and French.
nor 也不,引导句子要倒装 。如:He can not play the piano, nor can I. so 因此,所以,不和because连用。如:You like swimming, so do I. 1) 从属连词的用法: 从属连词有:after, when, before, as, while, since, until, till, if, unless, because, than, that, whether, so that after 表示“时间”,在…之后。如:After I finished the school, I became a worker in the factory. Although/though 表示让步, “尽管”。如: Although she is young, she knows a lot. as 表示时间,“当…时”,方式“象…”,原因,“由于、因为”让步,“尽管、虽然” 。如: As it was rainy, we couldn’t go out now. As if/as though 表方式,“似乎、好像” 。如: He told us such a story as though he had been there before. As long as/so long as 表条件,“只要” 。如: As long as I am here, I’ll go to help you. As soon as 表时间,“一…就…”。如: I will call you as soon as I come back. because 表原因,“因为”。如: I have to practice more because I am not good at English. before 表时间,“在…之前’’ 。如: You should think more before you do it. Even if/ even though 表让步,“即使”。如: You should try again even if you failed. Hardly…when 表时间,“(刚)一…就”。如: Hardly I entered the gate when the bell rang. if “假如”,引导条件状语从句。如: We will stay at home if the rain doesn’t stop. “是否”,引导宾语从句。如; I don’t know if he goes shopping. In order that 表目的,“为了,以便”。如: We study hard in order that we can pass the exam. No matter +疑问词 表让步,“无论,不管”。如: No matter what you do, you should try your best. No sooner…than 表时间,“刚一…就…”。如: No sooner had I come home than it began to rain. once 表时间,“一旦…”。如: Once you read this book, you’ll never forget it. since 表时间,“自从…以来”.如: He has been in this city since he left school. 表原因,“既然,由于” 。如: Since the job is dangerous, let’s do it more carefully. so far as/as far as 表条件,“就…而言,就…而论”.如:As far as I know, it is easy for you to speak in English. So that 表目的,“以便” 。如: Speak loud so that everybody can hear clearly. So…that 表结果“如此,以致”。如: He got up so early that he caught the early bus. than 表示比较,“比” 。如: Things were worse than we thought. unless 表条件,“除非,如果不” 。如: You will fail in the test unless you study hard. Until/till 表时间,“直到…为止” 。如: I’ll wait till my mother comes back. when 表时间,“当…时’’。如: When they got there, the train has left. whether “是否”引导名词性从句 。如: Whether he can come to see us is unknown. 表让步,“不管/无论、是否”。如:Whether she is rich or poor, she is always happy. while 表时间,“当…时” 。如: While he was in Beijing, he visited the Great Wall. whenever 表时间,“无论什么时候”。如: Whenever you meet any trouble, tell me at once.
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